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    Cherryokra95

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    1
    Gma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) (SigmaAldrich). In these experiments 0.2 M BaP
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    and 5 M Clo were found to be optimal concentrations. The 24 hour LC50 value of Clo was found to be approximately 14 M. BaP has very low solubility in seawater and we did not determine its LC50. About 130 four-days-old sexually immature animals (O. dioica) were placed in 1L glass beakers with filtere
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    To identify all conserved CYPs in the genome. Then we compared with CYPs identified by profile Hidde
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    n Markov Model (HMM) searches and identified CYP gene models were manually curated. PAS domain proteins were identified by a combination of HMM searches and BLAST searches using Mus musculus, Danio reiro, Caenorhabditis elegans, Branchiostoma floridae, Ciona intestinalis, Strongylocentrotus purpurat
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    To identify all conserved CYPs in the genome. Then we compared with CYPs identified by profile Hidde
    Read More
    n Markov Model (HMM) searches and identified CYP gene models were manually curated. PAS domain proteins were identified by a combination of HMM searches and BLAST searches using Mus musculus, Danio reiro, Caenorhabditis elegans, Branchiostoma floridae, Ciona intestinalis, Strongylocentrotus purpurat
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    Over-connected hubs in MetaCore (Transcription Regulation algorithm) resulted in a largely similar l
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    ist of transcription factors for Oikopleura and human BaP-regulated gene sets (Additional file 6, not shown). Not surprisingly, AhR was in the human list of transcription factor networks (not shown), but not in the Oikopleura list, suggesting lack of modulated AhR target genes in the latter. Another
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    . Final concentrations of Clo in seawater were 1 M (0.243 mg/L) and 5 M (1215 mg/L). Because of very
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    low solubility of BaP, the actual concentrations in the seawater were not known. BaP was added at 0.2 M (50.4 g/L) and 1 M (252 g/L) nominal concentrations. There were no large and visible precipitates in the 0.2 M BaP concentration, although invisible precipitates should form. Precipitates formed
    1
    . Final concentrations of Clo in seawater were 1 M (0.243 mg/L) and 5 M (1215 mg/L). Because of very
    Read More
    low solubility of BaP, the actual concentrations in the seawater were not known. BaP was added at 0.2 M (50.4 g/L) and 1 M (252 g/L) nominal concentrations. There were no large and visible precipitates in the 0.2 M BaP concentration, although invisible precipitates should form. Precipitates formed
    1
    . Final concentrations of Clo in seawater were 1 M (0.243 mg/L) and 5 M (1215 mg/L). Because of very
    Read More
    low solubility of BaP, the actual concentrations in the seawater were not known. BaP was added at 0.2 M (50.4 g/L) and 1 M (252 g/L) nominal concentrations. There were no large and visible precipitates in the 0.2 M BaP concentration, although invisible precipitates should form. Precipitates formed
    1
    Ikely applies also in Oikopleura. For example, the transcription factors HSF1/4 and JunD (component
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    of AP-1 complex), CYP3-like-2 gene, antioxidant genes and ABC transporters were up-regulated here by BaP (Additional file 3).Chemical exposureConclusions Oikopleura appears to have basic defensome toolkit or genes for biotransformation enzymes for responding to xenobiotic stressors, although it may
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    R (cnc-bZIP) proteins that heterodimerize with small Maf family proteins and activate transcription
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    from anti-oxidant response elements (ARE) in promoters of anti-oxidant defense genes [30]. Nrf2 is normally bound to its suppressor Keap-1 and is inactive in the cytosol, but it dissociates under oxidative stress from Keap-1 and activates the transcription of target genes [23]. Mammalian Bach 1 and
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    R (cnc-bZIP) proteins that heterodimerize with small Maf family proteins and activate transcription
    Read More
    from anti-oxidant response elements (ARE) in promoters of anti-oxidant defense genes [30]. Nrf2 is normally bound to its suppressor Keap-1 and is inactive in the cytosol, but it dissociates under oxidative stress from Keap-1 and activates the transcription of target genes [23]. Mammalian Bach 1 and